★ Modernism in the Catholic Church
In a Catholic context, Modernism is neither a system, school, or doctrine, but refers to a number of individual attempts to reconcile Roman Catholicism with modern culture, specifically an understanding of scripture in light of modern mainstream conceptions of archeology, philology, the historical-critical method and other new developments of the late 19th and early 20th centuries - and implicitly all that this might entail.
Writing in the Catholic encyclopedia, Arthur Vermeersch describes modernism as follows: "in General we can say that modernism aims at a radical transformation of human thinking in relation to God, man, world, and life, here and hereafter, which was prepared by humanism and eighteenth-century philosophy, and solemnly promulgated at the French revolution." The term became known in the Encyclical of Pope Pius XS 1907 Pascendi Dominici gregis, which synthesizes and condemns modernism embraces every heresy. The movement was influenced by Protestant theologians and clergy, starting with the tübingen school in the mid-19th century. Pius was accused that he was outstanding in French and British intellectual circles and, to a lesser extent, in Italy. The term is usually used by critics, not supporters of a position associated with it.
1. Background: Liberal Catholicism. (Фон: Либеральный Католицизм)
Liberal Catholicism was a current of thought in the Catholic Church, which was influential in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, especially in France, liberal democracy and the industrial economy grew in all developing European nation-States and empires in the period after the French revolution.
It is largely identified with French political theorists, such as félicité Robert de Lamennais, Henri Lacordaire, and Charles Forbes rené de modern influenced, in particular, such a simultaneous movement in Belgium.Engelbert Sterckx, Archbishop of Mechelen, Belgium, an experienced negotiator with a natural tendency to compromise, pragmatism, able to take advantage of new freedoms to completely reorganize its metropolis, the establishment of schools, colleges, monasteries, charitable and minor Seminary in Hoogstraten and fluctuate. Lamennais and his associates saw no conflict between Catholicism and liberal reforms. They are in favour of extended suffrage, the separation of Church and state, universal freedom of conscience, instruction, Assembly, and press.
In August 1832, Pope Gregory XVI issued the Encyclical Mirari VOS on liberalism and religious Indifferentism. He attacked religious indifferentism, which was defined as believes that one religion is as good as another, which he saw as the basis for the argument about freedom of conscience. He also condemned secret societies that sought to overthrow the legitimate government of the Italian States, and the freedom to publish any writings without analysis.
Lamennais, under fire from French conservatives, published in 1834 in the book, Words Dun croyant words to the believers in which he denounced all authority, both civil and ecclesiastical. Hefer marked Lamennais turn Christian socialism, which inspired a whole generation. His radical ideas reflected the coincidence of the Catholic and socialist ideas, which can be traced back to 1820-ies. The experience of the Pope during the recent revolutions, being expelled from Rome, riots in the Papal state, strengthening the secular power of the anti-Catholic forces, and the destruction of even a spiritual loyalty to the papacy predisposed to reactionary positions. As expected, Gregory XV issued the second Encyclical, Singulari nose Jun 1834, condemning Lamennais ideas.
In August 1863 the modern acted in Mechelen, Belgium, in which he developed his views on the future of modern society and the Church. His first speech, demonstrating the necessity of the baptism of the new democracies adopting modern freedoms. His second Speech concerned freedom of conscience, believing that the Church could be in perfect harmony with religious liberty and the modern state. Being largely political, liberal Catholicism is different from, but parallel theological movement of modernism.
2. History. (История)
Catholic studies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to avoid the use of critical methodology due to its rationalistic tendencies. Frequent political revolutions, bitter opposition" liberalism” in the Church, and the expulsion of religious orders from France and Germany, established the Church understandably suspicious of new intellectual currents.
In 1863 Ernest Renan published vie de Jesus Life of Jesus. Renan had prepared for the priesthood before choosing a secular career as a philologist and historian. His book described Jesus as "an incomparable man" persons, without any doubt, but man. The book was very popular, but cost him the chair of Hebrew at the Collège de France. Among the most controversial ideas of Renan, that "a miracle cannot be considered historical event, people, believing in miracles does. Jesus Renan-a simple man of piety and almost unimaginable charisma mainly historical significance of his Legion of followers.
2.1. History. Quanta cura. (Кванты Кура)
Gregory XVI was the successor of Pope Pius IX, who in December 1864 he published the Encyclical quanta Cura, condemning what he considered the most significant errors affecting the present. He condemned some of the proposals, such as: "will of the people, manifested by what is called public opinion. is a Supreme law, free from all divine and human control," on civil law alone depend all rights of parents in relation to their children, especially for education, and that religious orders have a legitimate reason for obtaining a permit. Some of these accusations were aimed at anticlerical Governments in various European countries that were in the process of secularization of education and Catholic schools, as well as suppressing religious orders and confiscating their property. Attached to the Encyclical was a "Syllabus of errors" that were condemned in previous papal documents, require access to the original application in order to be understood. The government of France briefly tried to suppress the circulation of the Encyclical and programs within its borders, He forbade priests to explain the curriculum from the pulpit, though Newspapers were allowed to discuss it from a secular point of view. Among the proposals were tried in the program was:
- "13. The method and principles by which the old scholastic doctors cultivated theology are no longer suitable to the demands of our times and to the progress of the sciences." - "Letters to the Archbishop of Munich", "Tuas libenter," Dec. 21, 1863.
- "7. The prophecies and miracles set forth and recorded in the Sacred Scriptures are the fiction of poets, and the mysteries of the Christian faith the result of philosophical investigations. In the books of the Old and the New Testament there are contained mythical inventions, and Jesus Christ is Himself a myth.".
2.2. History. First Vatican Council. (Первый Ватиканский Собор)
The first Vatican Council took place from December 1869 to October 1870. It was convened to solve the growing influence of rationalism, liberalism and materialism. The purpose of the Council was correcting the error and revising Church legislation. The Council caused controversy even before he met. Waiting that the topic of infallibility will be discussed a number of bishops expressed the opinion that "inappropriate." Ignaz von Dollinger, Provost of St. Cajetan and Professor of Church history in Munich, led the movement in Germany hostile to the Council. Six years ago, when he invited 100 theologians to meet at Mechelen and discuss the question which the liberals Lamennais and Lacordaire had raised in France, namely, the relation that should be considered Roman Catholic Church towards modern ideas. In his statement" in the past and the future of Catholic theology”, the business supports the expansion of academic freedom.
Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic faith, Dei Filius, defended the fundamental principles of Christianity against the errors of modern rationalism, materialism and atheism. The other dogmatic Constitution on the name of the primacy of the Pope and rejected the idea that the decrees issued by the Pope for the leadership of the Church null and void if not confirmed by the secular authorities. He also declared the infallibility of the Pope when he speaks "ex chair" on matters of faith. There were other issues pending when the infantry of the Piedmontese entered Rome and the Council, the work was suspended.
2.3. History. Pope Leo XIII. (Папа Лев XIII)
In 1878, Pope Leo XIII encouraged the study of history and archaeology. In 1887 he encouraged the study of natural Sciences, and in 1891 opened the Observatory of the Vatican. Leos response to modernist tendencies to undermine the authority of Scripture, was for the Church to have its own qualified professionals. In 1893, with Providentissimus Deus and Pope Leo gave the first official permission for the use of critical methods in biblical scholarship. "Therefore, it is most proper that professors of sacred Scripture and theologians should master those tongues in which the sacred books were originally written, is the knowledge of the natural Sciences. It is recommended that the student of Scripture with the first proper grounding interpretations of the fathers, such as Tertullian, Cyprian, the Hilary, Ambrose, Leo the Great, Gregory the Great, Augustine and Jerome, and understand what they interpret literally and what is allegorical, and note what they lay down as belonging to faith and what is opinion.
At the turn of the 20th century, the official Catholic attitude to the study of the Scriptures was one of cautious progress, and at the same time, there is a growing understanding that promise for the future. In 1902, Pope Leo XIII established the Pontifical biblical Commission, which was to adapt Roman Catholic biblical studies to modern science and to protect Scripture against attacks.
2.4. History. Marie-Joseph Lagrange. (Мари-Жозеф Лагранж)
In 1890, the Ecole Biblique, the first Catholic school, which is specifically designed for critical study of the Bible was established in Jerusalem in the Dominican Marie-Joseph Lagrange. In 1892, Pope Leo XIII gave his official approval. Although many of Lagranges contemporaries criticized the new research and a critical approach to the Bible, he used it. Lagrange founded the Revue Biblique, and the first article caused an outcry, but Pope Leo was not inclined to interfere with new ideas. While Pope Leo lived, Lagranges quietly to work on, but after Leos death, the ultra-conservative reaction to the set. The historical-critical method was considered a suspect in the Vatican. Pere Lagrange, like other scholars involved in the 19th century Renaissance of biblical studies, was suspected in the art Nouveau style. In 1912, Lagrange was given the order for publication Revue Biblique, to stop sharing and return to France. The school itself was closed during the year, and then Lagrange has been sent back to Jerusalem to continue his work.
2.5. History. Duchesne and Loisy. (Дюшен и Луази)
Louis Duchesne was a French priest, philologist, teacher and Amateur archaeologist. Training in school practice des études in Paris, he has applied modern methods in the history of the Church, the rapprochement of archaeology and topography to Supplement literature and setting ecclesiastical events in the context of social history. Duchesne held the chair of Church history at the Institute of Catholic University in Paris, and was often in contact with like-minded historians among the Bollandists, with their long history and critical edition of the lives of the saints. DuChene gained popularity as demythologized critical historian of popular pious the lives of saints produced in the second publishers Empire. However, its historyancienne de Ieglise, 1906-11 translated as the early history of the Christian Church was considered too modernist by the Church at the time, and was included in the Index of forbidden books in 1912.
Alfred Loisy was a French Roman Catholic priest, Professor and theologian generally credited as a founder of biblical modernism in the Roman Catholic Church. He studied at the Ecole practices DuChene. Harvey hill said that the development of the theory Loisys did not arise during early modernism, but in the context of Church-state Francis of the conflict, which contributed to the crisis Loisys faith in 1880. In November 1893, Lazy released last lecture of his course in which he summed up his position on biblical criticism in five sentences: the Pentateuch was not the work of Moses, the first five chapters of Genesis was not literal history, the New Testament and the old Testament did not have the same historical value, was the development in biblical doctrine and biblical Scripture was subjected to the same restrictions as other ancient authors. Loisy came to regard the Christian religion as a system of humanistic ethics, not as a divine revelation. He was excommunicated in 1908.
2.6. History. Pius X. (Пия X)
Pope Pius X, who succeeded Leo in 1903, against both the goals and ideas of modernism and the various nineteenth-century philosophy, which he considers as an import of secular errors incompatible with Catholic dogma. In July 1907 the Holy see published the document Lamentabili sane exitu, a sweeping condemnation which differ sixty-five offers as a modernist heresy. In September of the same year, Pope Pius X issued the Encyclical Pascendi Dominici gregis, which has developed a stunning synthesis of modernism and popularized the term. In the encylical condemned the movement as embracing every heresy, and effectively expelled from the Catholic Church.
Pius often condemn the movement, and was deeply concerned that his followers can go on believing themselves strict Catholics, although the understanding of the dogma in much non-traditional sense, the consequence of the concept of evolution of dogma. In 1910 he introduced an anti-modernist oath to be taken in all Catholic University professors, while he closed "the only notable American Catholic magazine, the" Church review just when it was necessary to challenge the growing influence of John Deweys pragmatism."
To enforce these decisions, Monsignor Umberto Benigni organized, through his personal contacts with theologians, an unofficial group of censors who would report to him those who are considered to be teaching condemned doctrine. This group was called the Sodalitium Pianum, i.e. Fellowship of Pius X, who in France was known as La found suitable. Its frequently overzealous and clandestine methods is often hampered, rather than helped the Church in its struggle with modernism.
2.7. History. Twentieth Century. (ХХ Века)
After the pontificate of Pius X, "there was a gradual decrease in the attacks against the modernists, beginning with 1914, when Benedict XVI called on Catholics to stop condemning fellow Muslims."
In the period between World War II and the cold war, Reginald Garrigou-lagrange O. P. was the "torchbearer of Orthodox Thomism" against modernism. Garrigou-Lagrange, who was a Professor of philosophy and theology at the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum, is usually considered to have influenced the decision in 1942 to place him in private, in the book of Une Ecole de theologie: Le Saulchoir etiolles 1937 Marie-Dominique chenu O. P. on the Vaticans "Index of forbidden books", and the culmination of a polemic within the Dominican order between the Angelicum supporters of a speculative scholasticism and the French revival Thomists who were more attentive to historical hermeneutics, such as Yves Congar O. P. Congars Chretiens desunis was also suspected of modernism, because its methodology derived more from religious experience than from syllogistic analysis.
The second Vatican Council in the 1960s, is regarded as proof that modernists supported "in the atmosphere of suspicion and ruthless personal attack". The aggiornamento of the Council include most of the developments in biblical and religious studies, which was put forward by Catholic scholars of the last century. The reference to modernism continues to survive among traditionalists within the Church.
3. Forms of modernism. (Форм модернизма)
The theory of modernism, is the claim that objective truth is accepted subjectively. Modernism in the Catholic Church was the subject of the Encyclical Pascendi Dominici gregis of Pope Pius X. modernism can be characterized by the following main headings:
- A rationalistic approach to the Bible sought to interpret the Bible by focusing on the text itself as a prelude to considering what the Church Fathers had traditionally taught about it.
- Secularism and other Enlightenment ideals. The ideal of secularism can be briefly stated as follows: the best course of action in politics and other civic fields is that which flows from a common understanding of the Good by various groups and religions.
- Modern philosophical systems. Philosophers such as Kant and Bergson inspired the mainstream of modernist thought. One of the latter’s main currents attempted to synthesize the vocabularies, epistemologies, metaphysics and other features of certain modern systems of philosophy with Catholicism in much the same way as the Scholastic order had earlier attempted to synthesize Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy with the Churchs teaching.
- Theological rebellion in contradistinction or opposition to the Churchs official policies.
As more naturalistic and scientific studies of history appeared, a way of thinking called historicism arose which suggested that ideas are conditioned by the era in which they are expressed, thus modernists generally believed that most dogmas or teachings of the Church were novelties which arose because of specific circumstances obtaining at given points in its history. At the same time rationalism and literary criticism reduced the possible role of the miraculous, so that the philosophical systems in Vogue at the time taught among other things, that the existence of God can not be known, see agnosticism. Theology, in the past" the Queen of Sciences”, was dethroned.
4. Evolution of dogma. (Эволюция догмы)
The final overall teaching of modernism is that the tenets of the teachings of the Church in which its members are required to believe, can evolve over time – not only in their expression but also in their substance – rather than remaining the same in essence for all time. With a new idea that doctrines evolve, it was possible for the modernist to believe that both the old teachings of the Church and her new, seemingly contradictory teachings were right - each group had their time and place. This system allows almost any type of new belief that the modernist in question may want to enter, and for this reason modernism was recognized by Pope Pius X as "the synthesis of all heresies".
"Evolution of dogma" theory see development of doctrine, in the style of Luthers theory of salvation Sola FIDE, by faith only allows constant updating of standards of morality. The phrase Sola FIDE derives from Pange lingua Gloriosi Corporis Mysterium, a Eucharistic hymn of St. Thomas Aquinas: the deficit Et si Sensus, | ad firmandum cor sincerum | Sola fides sufficit. Since majority moral standards shifted heavily during the 20th century, Catholics not accepting the theory were put in the position of having to refrain from communion if they want to participate in some actions of some of their fellow co-religionists.
5. Notable modernists. (Заметных модернистов)
Major figures. (Крупные фигуры)
- Ernesto Buonaiuti 1881–1946, who as a scholar of the history of Christianity and of religious philosophy, was a leader in the Italian modernist movement.
- Pierre Batiffol 1861–1929, historian of dogma.
- Maude Petre 1863–1942, English nun, close friend of Tyrrell, and a participant in the modernist movement as well as one of its first historians and critics.
- Friedrich von Hugel. (Фридрих фон Хюгель)
- George Tyrrell 1861–1909, expelled from the Jesuits in 1906 for his views.
6. In America. (В Америке)
The new York review of magazine is St. Josephs Seminary, Dunwoodie. While the "review" he never published an article that was suspect, but he did print documents from leading Catholic biblical experts who were part of the emerging schools of biblical criticism, which has raised eyebrows in Rome. Around 1908, "review" was dismissed, allegedly for financial reasons, although there is evidence that it was suppressed.
7. Bibliography. (Библиография)
- Vian, Giovanni 2012. Il modernismo. La Chiesa cattolica in conflitto con la modernità. Roma: Carocci.
- Altholz, Josef L. 1962. The Liberal Catholic Movement in England: The Rambler and its Contributors, 1848-1864. London: Burns & Oates.
- Providentissimus Deus. Leo XIII. 18 November 1893.
- Amerio, Romano 1996. Iota Unum: A Study of Changes in the Catholic Church in the XXth Century. Kansas City, Missouri: Sarto House. ISBN 9780963903211. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Arnold, Claus 2007. Kleine Geschichte des Modernimus. Freiburg i. B.: Herder.
- Arnold Claus, Vian, Giovanni, eds. 2017. The Reception and Application of the Encyclical Pascendi. The Reports of the Diocesan Bishops and the Superiors of the Religious Orders until 1914. Venezia: Edizioni Ca Foscari.
- Botti, Alfonso, Cerrato, Rocco, eds. 2000. Il Modernismo Tra Cristianitā e Secolarizzazione: Atti Del Convegno Internazionale Di Urbino, 1-4 Ottobre 1997. Religion et Societes. 67. Tournai: Casterman. ISBN 9782203290563. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Sinke Guimara̋es, Atila 1999. In the Murky Waters of Vatican II. Eli, Eli, Lamma sabacthani?. 1 2nd ed. Tan Books and Publishers. ISBN 9780895556363. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Virgoulay, Rene 1980. Blondel et le modernisme: la philosophie de laction et les sciences religieuses, 1896-1913. Paris: Editions du Cerf. ISBN 9782204015097. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
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