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★ COHO - radar theory ..



COHO, short for Coherent Oscillator, is a technique used with radar systems based on the cavity magnetron to allow them to implement a moving target indicator display. Because the signals are only coherent when received, not transmitted, the concept is also sometimes known as coherent on receive. Due to the way the signal is processed, radars using this technique are known as pseudo-coherent radar.

Coho can be inexpensively implemented in analog electronics, and has been widely used in the 1950s in the 1970-ies. In the new solid state system and full digital processing have become inexpensive, coho became less widely used today and is found only in some cheap systems.


1. Description. (Описание)

Unlike other microwave devices like klystron, magnetron produces a signal with each pulse that differ slightly in frequency and abruptly in phase. This makes it very difficult to perform a pulse comparison for removing clutter and moving target detection.

One solution to this problem would be to attract a small amount of the original signal from the magnetron via a directional coupler. It can be stored in a delay line or similar device for comparison, when the pulse is reflected and returns from distant objects. However, the corresponding delay lines, which operated at microwave frequencies the radar didnt exist when coho salmon were introduced.

Instead, coho signal taps of the magnetron in the same way, and then sends it to the circuit, which forms the front end of a traditional receiver, if the intermediate frequency section of the superheterodyne receiver. If the sections normally work between 40 and 60 MHz. This is significantly below the signal frequency now is extended in time by means of a ring phase-locked loop or similar solution, providing a precise and stable signal. This part of the coho circuitry known as a stable generator, or is.

Objects that are visible on the radar will reflect the signal, and the phase of the signal will depend on its exact distance from the antenna. This returned signal is amplified in the if section good. The output of this receiver is compared was the signal to the phase detector. The detector gives a signal only if the signals differ in phase, which occurs wherever there is object. In a series of short pulses at the output. This signal can be used as video, and can be aimed directly at the radar screen.

This technique by itself does not reveal moving targets, which requires more pulses of the comparison. This can be achieved by dividing the phase detector output, and sending one half of the acoustic delay line with the same delay as the pulse repetition frequency. This means that the signal from the last pulse output delay at the same time as the next pulse arrives. One of the signals is inverted, generally of delay lines, and added a new signal. The result is only an output signal where the two signals changes.

If the target is in motion, and, therefore, accurate distance change relative to the radar, the phase of the received signal will change from pulse to pulse and to signal the final video. Not a moving target approximately the same phase from pulse to pulse, and the signal will be eliminated. The speed of the target along the line of sight determines the phase variation from pulse to pulse, so that a series of pulses, the phase difference will change. The rate of change in phase coincides with the Doppler frequency that would be seen in a fully coherent Doppler radar, and can be used to determine the radial velocity of the target.

A significant disadvantage of coho design is that it cannot be used in fast frequency hopping radars. These frequency changes from pulse to pulse, and pulse-comparison methods, like coho salmon, are not working. For these roles required a coherent source signal as a klystron is. In addition, it is difficult to change the radar parameters, like pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency, as data storage devices, usually implemented in mechanical delays, which had to be changed, although a small selection of ready-made kits can be used.

Coho are widely used since the early 1950s, in the 1960s, but the introduction of more powerful klystrons and new travel systems the wave of immigrants of the magnetron from most of the military radars in the 1970-ies. Later systems based on various semiconductor elements are consistent as well. Digital electronics performance required for processing and storing signals are now commonplace, allowing coho salmon-like methods to any signal. Independent system coho salmon are no longer used, except for certain classes of cheap radar.

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