★ Ordination of women in the Anglican Communion
The ordination of women in the Anglican Communion has been increasingly common in certain provinces since the 1970s. Several provinces, however, and certain dioceses within otherwise ordaining provinces, continue to ordain only men. Disputes over the ordination of women have contributed to the establishment and growth of progressive tendencies, such the Anglican realignment and Continuing Anglican movements.
In some provinces in the Anglican Church to ordain women in the three traditional Holy orders of Bishop, priest and deacon. Other provinces ordain women deacons and priests but not bishops; others still as deacons only.
In provinces which permit the ordination of women, the legislation is largely the responsibility of the diocesan. You can, however, be individual dioceses which do not approve the legislation or to do so only in a modified form, and in those dioceses which ordain women to the diaconate, such as the diocese of Sydney in the Anglican Church of Australia, regardless of whether the ordination of women to all three orders of the Ministry canonically possible.
1. Overview. (Обзор)
The current situation in relation to women ordination in the Anglican Church can be seen in the following table, which lists 38 churches and 6 extra-provincial churches:
Please note that the province be divided, depending on the overall provincial policy on the ordination of women. In the provinces where individual dioceses have great autonomy, for example, the Anglican Church of Australia, some dioceses may be less favorable than in the province as a whole.
2. Ordination of priests. (Рукоположение священников)
The first woman ordained to the priesthood in the Anglican Church was Florence Li Tim-OI, who was appointed on 25 January 1944 by Ronald Hall, Bishop of Victoria, Hong Kong, in response to the crisis among Anglican Christians in China caused by the Japanese invasion. To avoid disputes, she folded the license though, and not the priests, after the war.
In 1971, the Synod of Hong Kong and Macao became the first Anglican province to formally allow the ordination of women to the priesthood. Jane Hwang and Joyce M. Bennett were ordained as priests Gilbert Baker, Bishop of Hong Kong and Macao on 28 November 1971. At the same time, Li Tim-OI was officially recognised again as a priest.
In 1974 in the United States, 11 women known as the "Philadelphia eleven" were controversial ordained to the priesthood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, three retired Episcopal Church bishops Daniel Corrigan, Robert L. DeWitt, and Edward R. Welles. Four more women, "Washington four" was ordained in 1975 in Washington, George Barrett, the retired Bishop of Rochester, new York. All these ordinations were considered "irregular" because they were made without the permission of the Episcopal Church General Convention. Ordination was officially recognized in 1976 after the approval of the General Convention on measures to ensure the ordination of women to the priesthood and the episcopate. The first regular ordination occurred on 1 January 1977, when Jacqueline means was ordained at All Saints Episcopal Church, Indianapolis.
In 1975 the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada ACC passed the appropriate legislation for women priests, six priests in the ACC were appointed on 30 November 1976.
In 1977, the Anglican Church in New Zealand ordained five female priests.
In 1980, the Anglican Church of Kenya agreed in principle that women can be ordained, and that each diocese must be self-contained in addressing the issue. In 1983, Henry Okullu, Bishop of the diocese of Maseno South in the Anglican Church of Kenya, San Lucia Okuthe as priest. In the same year, William Rukirande, Bishop of Kigezi in the Church of Uganda, ordained three women as priest, Monica Sebidega, Deborah Micungwa Rukara and Margaret Kizanye Byekwaso. Formal legislation for the ordination of women as priests was ultimately approved in both provinces in 1990.
In 1990 Janet between Catterall became the first woman to be ordained a priest of the Anglican Church in Ireland.
In 1992 the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Australia approved legislation allowing dioceses to decide whether to ordain women to the priesthood. In the same year, 90 women were ordained in Australia and two others, who were appointed abroad was recognized.
Also in 1992, the Anglican Church of southern Africa permitted the ordination of women to the priesthood, and in September of the same year, Charton Nancy, the bride Dickson and sue groves were ordained to the diocese of Grahamstown.
Also in 1992, the General Synod of the Church of England passed a vote to ordain women, however, were contradictory. The act of Synod, passed in 1993, along with subsequent legislation allowed parishes not to accept the dignity of women. In England 1994 first thirty-two women were ordained as priests. The experience of the first women priests and their parishioners was the premise of the television programme the Vicar of Dibley. The legality of the ordination of women in the Church of England was challenged in civil court Paul Williamson and others. By 2004, one of the five priests was a woman.
In 1994, in the diocese of Barbados, Sonia hinds and Beverley Sealy became the first women to be ordained to the diaconate in the Church in the province of the West Indies on July 25, the feast of St. James. May 31, 1996, the celebration of the visitation of Mary and Elizabeth, both women were ordained as priests. Rufus Brome, the first Barbadian born Bishop, presided at both ordinations at the Cathedral of St. Michael and all angels in Bridgetown, Barbados.
In 1997, Rosalina Villaruel Rabaria became the first woman ordained in the independent Church of the Philippines, 9 February, the diocese of Aklan and Capiz.
In 2015, Bolivia became the first diocese in the Anglican province of South America, formerly known as the southern cone to ordain women to the priesthood.
Also in 2015, Susanna lópez Lerena, Cynthia Myers dickin, and Audrey Taylor Gonzalez became the first Anglican women priests ordained in the diocese of Uruguay.
3.1. Ordination of bishops. Episcopal Church in the United States. (Епископальная церковь в США)
The first woman to become a Bishop in the Anglican Church was Barbara Harris, who was ordained suffragan Bishop of Massachusetts in the United States in February 1989. As of August 2017, 24 women were elected bishops in the Church. In the elections in December 2009 and consecration on may 15, 2010 it Mary glasspool, who is openly gay and lives with his partner of 20 years as auxiliary Bishop in the diocese of Los Angeles attracted the attention due to the ongoing dispute over gay bishops in the Anglican.
The Episcopal Church in the United States was also elected the first woman to become a Primate or senior Bishop of the state Church Katherine Jefferts Schori, who was elected the 26th presiding Bishop and Primate of the Episcopal Church at the 2006 General Convention for a nine-year period 2006-2015.
3.2. Ordination of bishops. Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia. (Англиканская церковь в Аотеароа, Новой Зеландии и Полинезии)
Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia first Church ordain women to the priesthood in 1977 and became the first Anglican province to elect a woman as a diocesan Bishop when in 1989 penny Jamieson was elected Bishop of Dunedin. She retired in 2004. In 2008, the diocese of Christchurch elected Victoria Matthews, former Bishop of Edmonton in the Anglican Church of Canada, and the 8th Bishop of Christchurch. In 2013, Helen-Ann Hartley became the first woman ordained in the Anglican Church to become a Bishop when she was elected Bishop of Waikato and joint diocesan Bishop in the diocese of Waikato and Taranaki.From 2017, the RT Rev Dr Eleanor Sanderson worked as an assistant Bishop of Wellington. Wai Quayle became the first woman to be elected Bishop in the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia in 2019.
3.3. Ordination of bishops. Anglican Church of Canada. (Англиканская церковь Канады)
After the first ordination of women as priests in 1976, the first woman to become a Bishop in the Anglican Church of Canada, Victoria Matthews. She was elected auxiliary Bishop in the diocese of Toronto on 19 November 1993 and was ordained a Bishop on 12 Feb 1994. Later she was the first woman to become a diocesan Bishop in Canada when she was elected Bishop of Edmonton in 1997, an office she held until 2007 when she resigned. She was subsequently elected Bishop of Christchurch in the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia in 2008.
After the election of Matthews, twelve women were elected to the episcopate in Canada. They Ann Tottenham, sue Moxley, Jane Alexander, Linda Nichols, Barbara Andrews, suffragan Bishop of the Metropolitan of responsibility for the Anglican parishes of the Central interior, 2009, Lydia Mamakwa, Melissa Skelton, Mary Irwin-Gibson, diocesan Bishop of Montreal, 2015, Riscylla Shaw, Jenny Andison, Anne Germond. Susan bell and Lynne McNaughton.
May 12, 2018 Melissa Skelton was elected Metropolitan, which includes the title of Archbishop of the ecclesiastical province of British Columbia and the Yukon.
3.4. Ordination of bishops. Anglican Church of Australia. (Англиканская церковь Австралии)
Anglican Church of Australia began to ordain women priests in 1992 and in the late 1990-ies began a protracted debate over the ordination of women bishops debate was finally resolved, although the Church appeals Tribunal, which ruled on 28 September 2007 that there is nothing in the Constitution of the Church, that would not prevent the consecration of a woman priest as a Bishop in a diocese which by Ordinance has adopted the law of the Church of England clarification Canon 1992, which paved the way for the ordination of women to the priesthood.
After the conclusion of the agreement in April 2008, the bishops of the conference "Women in the episcopate" Protocol for the provision of pastoral care for those who reject the Ministry of women bishops, the first woman ordained a Bishop was Kay Goldsworthy the vicar of the diocese of Perth on 22 may 2008 and subsequently elected as the 12th Bishop of the diocese of Gippsland in South-Eastern Australian state of Victoria and established on 21 Mar 2015 and Barbara darling, vicar of the Anglican diocese of Melbourne on 31 may 2008.
Four more women were ordained as bishops: Genieve Blackwell, regional Bishop in Wagga and subsequently assistant Bishop in the diocese of Melbourne 31 Mar 2012, Alison Taylor, Bishop of the southern region, diocese of Brisbane on 6 April 2013, Sarah MacNeil, Bishop of Grafton, who became the first woman to become a diocesan Bishop in the Church March 1, 2014, and Kate Wilmot, assistant Bishop in the diocese of Perth, 6 Aug 2015.
29 Aug 2017 Kay Goldsworthy was elected Archbishop of Perth in the province of Western Australia. On her appointment on February 10, 2018, she became the first woman in the Anglican Church appointed Archbishop.
3.5. Ordination of bishops. Anglican Church of Southern Africa. (Англиканская церковь Южной Африки)
The first woman to become a Bishop in the Anglican Church of South Africa Ellinah Ntombi Wamukoya was elected Bishop of the diocese of Swaziland on July 18, 2012 and ordained and installed on November 10, 2012. Her appointment was closely followed elections, 12 October 2012, Margaret chastity as Bishop of the diocese of false Bay. She was consecrated and installed on January 19, 2013.
3.6. Ordination of bishops. Church in Wales. (Церковь в Уэльсе)
April 2, 2008, the Administrative Council of the Church in Wales but not passed, a bill allowing women to be ordained as bishops. Although the bill was passed by the House of laity 52 to 19 and the house of bishops unanimously, it is not to vote 27 to 18 to provide the required minimum two-thirds majority in the House of representatives of the clergy. However, the Church in Wales decisively ended the role of the provincial bishops, whose duty it was to serve as opponents. September 12, 2013, the Administrative Council adopted a bill allowing women to be ordained as bishops, subject to the completion of the internship, ultimately published in September 2014.
November 2, 2016, Joanna Penberthy was elected Bishop of St Davids in the Church in Wales. It was consecrated in January 2017 throne in St Davids Cathedral in February 2017. February 25, 2017 June Osborne was elected as the 72nd Bishop of Llandaff. It was consecrated July 15, 2017 and installed in llandaff Cathedral on 22 July 2017.
3.7. Ordination of bishops. Church of England. (Церковь Англии)
After the ordination of women priests began in 1994, dioceses usually have bishops, senior staff of the Dean of womens Ministry or bishops adviser in womens Ministry or the like, whose role is to assist the clergy, women and to ensure the Bishop aware of the problems inherent in the Ministry. These advisers will gather at the National Association NADAWM.
In 2005, 2006 and 2008 the General Synod of the Church of England voted to remove legal obstacles to women becoming bishops. The process is not fast due to problems in providing appropriate mechanisms to protect those who cannot accept this development. 7 July 2008 the Synod held a more than seven-hour debate on the subject, and a small majority in favor of the national regulations provides for opponents, though more radical provisions, such as separate structures or the control of bishops, proposed by opponents of the measure managed to win the required majority in each of the three houses of bishops, clergy and laity.
The task of taking this proposal has largely fallen to the audit Commission established by the Synod for consideration the draft law on the inclusion of women bishops the Church of England. When, in October 2009, the revision Committee released a statement indicating its proposals would be included in the plan to vest some functions by law in male bishops who would provide oversight for those unable to receive the Ministry of women as bishops or priests, there was widespread concern both inside and outside of the Church of England on the expediency of such a law. In light of the negative reaction to the proposal, the audit Committee subsequently announced the abandonment of this recommendation.
The Synod, meeting in York from 9 to 12 July 2010, considered a measure that again endorsed the ordination of women bishops. The measure included provisions for individual bishops to allow alternative oversight for traditionalists who object to serving under them, but by opponents of the measure argued for stronger provisions. A compromise plan put forward by the archbishops of Canterbury and York, providing a mechanism to "coordinate jurisdiction" in the parishes the refusal of the Ministry of a Bishop who is a woman when another Bishop to perform Episcopal function has been approved by the house of bishops and the house of laity, but was nearly 90 by a vote of 85 in favour in the parish House. The draft measure, with only minor amendments, passed in all three houses on 12 July 2010 for consideration of individual dioceses. This measure was adopted by 42 of the 44 dioceses, but the amendments by the house of bishops, offering new concessions to opponents, meant that many of the supporters of this measure would have reluctantly voted against it, and the Synod in York in July 2012 to defer the decision to a later Synod.
20 November 2012 the General Synod failed to pass proposed legislation for ordination of women bishops. This measure was lost after barely failing to achieve a two-thirds majority of the votes in the House of laity, once passed by the House of bishops and House of clergy.
At its meeting on 7 February 2013, the House of bishops decided that eight senior women clergy, elected at the regional level, will participate in all meetings of the chamber until, as there was six women, who were bishops, sitting up straight.
In may 2013 the house of bishops expressed its commitment "to publishing new ways to allow women to become bishops". In July 2013, the Synod decided to reintroduce legislation will be reviewed in November.
In November 2013 the General Synod approved a package of measures as the next steps to enable women to become bishops, generally welcoming the package of proposals for draft legislation of women in the episcopate GS 1924. Steering committees a package of proposals after delivered in July, the Synod, and included the first draft house of bishops Declaration and a disputes settlement procedure. Invited to the Synod to welcome the proposals and five guiding principles already agreed in the House of bishops.
The General Synod again considered the case in February 2014 and sent the bill for all dioceses of the Church of England. All the dioceses were able to meet within the required timeframe 43 of 44 approved the draft law during its discussion at the General Synod in York in July 2014. That legislation passed all three houses of General Synod dated 14 July 2014, achieving a two-thirds majority of votes required in all three. He acquired the necessary parliamentary approvals and Royal assent in the subsequent months and was finally approved by the General Synod on 17 November 2014.
The first woman to be ordained as a Bishop in the Church of England Libby lane, whose appointment to the post of Bishop of Stockport suffragan see in the diocese of Chester was announced on 17 December 2014. It was consecrated in York Minster on 26 January 2015 the feast of the conversion of St Paul. Alison white was appointed on March 25, 2015 the Bishop of hull, the vicar of the diocese of York and consecrated to Minister York on July 3, 2015, the feast of St. Thomas.
The third woman to be appointed Bishop, and the first to be the diocesan Bishop, was Rachel Treweek, whose appointment in the 43rd Bishop of Gloucester was declared on 26 March 2015. She became the Bishop of Gloucester on 15 June 2015 after confirming his election. 22, 2015 on the feast of St. Mary Magdalene, she and Sarah Mullally, the Bishop of Crediton, the vicar in the diocese of Exeter were the first women to be ordained as bishops in Canterbury Cathedral. In accordance with the lords spiritual women 2015, which makes time-limited provision for vacancies among the lords spiritual, bishops, members of the house of lords should be filled with the diocesan bishops who are women, Treweek was also the first to sit in the House of lords, where it was introduced on 26 October 2015.
30 June 2015, it was announced that Ruth Worsley will be Bishop suffragan of Taunton, diocese of Bath and wells. 2, 2015, on the appointment of Anne Hollinghurst as Bishop of Aston, vicar of the diocese of Birmingham was announced. Both were consecrated in St. Pauls Cathedral, London, 29 September, the feast of St. Michael and all Angels.
2 September 2015, it was announced that Christine Hardman will be the 12th Bishop of Newcastle, and, thus, the second woman to be the diocesan Bishop in the Church of England and the first in the province of York. Hardman became Bishop of Newcastle-upon confirmation of his election on 22 September 2015, it was consecrated on 30 November 2015 in York Minster. Hardman also sits in the House of lords.
November 26, 2015 on the appointment of Karen Gorham as Bishop of Sherborne vicar of the diocese of Salisbury was announced. She was the first woman to be consecrated in Westminster Abbey for the service which was held on 24 February 2016.
Between 2014 and 2018, almost half of all new appointments of bishops in the Church of England are women.
3.8. Ordination of bishops. Church of Ireland. (Церковь Ирландии)
The Church of Ireland approved the ordination of women priests and bishops in 1990 and the first women were ordained as priests on June 24 of this year. The first woman to the episcopate was Pat storey, who was consecrated Bishop of Meath and Kildare on December 1, 2013. On 19 September 2013, floor was chosen by the house of bishops, to succeed Richard Clarke as Bishop of Meath and Kildare. It was consecrated as the Bishop of the Cathedral of Christ Church, Dublin, on 30 November 2013. She is the first woman elected as Bishop in the Church of Ireland and the first woman Bishop of the Anglican communion in Ireland and the UK.
3.9. Ordination of bishops. Church of South India. (Церковь Южной Индии)
The Church of South India admitted women to the priesthood since its Foundation in 1947. Eggoni Pushpa Lalitha was the first woman elected as Bishop on September 25, 2013. She was ordained and installed as Bishop of Nandyal diocese on 29 September 2013.
3.10. Ordination of bishops. Episcopal Church of South Sudan. (Епископальная церковь Южного Судана)
The Episcopal Church of South Sudan provides for the ordination of women to all three orders of the Ministry in 2000. The first woman ordained a Bishop in the Church, RT Rev Elizabeth Autom Ngor, who was consecrated as assistant Bishop in the diocese of Rumbek to 31 December 2016. Its first appointment of a woman Bishop in any of the so-called GAFCON-aligned provinces of the Anglican community, which, in General, to resist the ordination of women priests and bishops.
3.11. Ordination of bishops. Scottish Episcopal Church. (Шотландская Епископальная Церковь)
The Scottish Episcopal Church ordained its first women as priests in 1994 and in 2003 provided for the ordination of women bishops. The nomination of Alison the poor as one of three candidates for election as Bishop of Glasgow and Galloway in January 2010 attracted widespread attention. The first woman to be appointed was the Reverend Canon Anne Dyer, who was elected Bishop of the diocese of Aberdeen and Orkney in the Episcopal Synod of the Scottish Episcopal Church on November 9, 2017. It was consecrated on March 1, 2018.
3.12. Ordination of bishops. Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil. (Епископальная англиканская церковь Бразилии)
First woman appointed Bishop in the Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil the right Rev diseases Santos Bassotto, who was elected Bishop of the diocese of the Amazon on 20 January 2018, and was ordained on April 21, 2018.
3.13. Ordination of bishops. Extraprovincial churches. (Extraprovincial церкви)
In addition to the 39 provinces of the Anglican community, there are still six provinces of the Anglican churches which function semi-Autonomous under limited metropolitical oversight and are almost completely dominant, when it comes to the ordained Ministry. Some of them are provided for the ordination of women to the priesthood within a few years.
The Episcopal Church of Cuba is the only extra-provincial Church to ordain women to the rank of bishops, the first of which was Nerva cot Aguilera who was appointed auxiliary Bishop in 2007. Aguilera was appointed by the Metropolitan Council, the ecclesiastical authority for the Episcopal Church of Cuba which in January 2010 appointed Griselda Delgato del carpio as a substitute of the Bishop, assistant Bishop with the right of inheritance. She was ordained a Bishop on 7 Feb 2010 and installed as diocesan on November 28, 2010 after the resignation of Miguel Tamayo-Marquis.
4. Controversies and breakaway groups. (Противоречий и сепаратистских групп)
The ordination of women was a controversial issue throughout the Anglican Church. While most of the 38 provinces of the Anglican Church to ordain women as priests, and many of them removed all barriers for women to become bishops, some formal or informal steps to provide pastoral care and support for those who do not in conscience accept the Ministry of women as priests and bishops. The Church of England, for example, was created the office of provincial Episcopal visitor, commonly known as "flying bishops" to serve the clergy, laity and parishes who do not in conscience accept the Ministry of women priests. This vicar bishops, appointed metropolitans, whose main purpose is to be available for this Department.
There were a number of protest groups established by conservative Anglicans who see the ordination of women as representative of a trend away from traditional or Orthodox doctrine. Network for opponents of the ordination of women is called the Evangelical and Catholic mission was established in 1976, and after the consecration of Barbara Harris, the first woman to become an Anglican Bishop, in 1989, a group of 22 current and retired bishops established the Episcopal Synod of America, subsequently, forward in faith in North America. Sister organization, forward in faith in the UK, was founded in 1992.
There are also a number of separatist groups. After the Congress in St. Louis in 1977, the continuing Anglican movement developed which sought to provide the Churchs official structure for those who felt unable to remain in the mainstream of Anglicanism. Major groupings within the continuing movement have been increasingly active since the publication of Pope Benedict XVI in the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus in November 2009. Anglicanorum Coetibus provides a canonical structure for groups of former Anglicans to enter full communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with formal structures in the form of personal ordinariates in the UK, USA, Australia and Japan
Long-term impact of Anglicanorum Coetibus on the continuation of the movement is unknown, Although there is a clear understanding that the loss of significant groups and their associated resources, especially in the personal Ordinariate of the chair of St. Peter in the United States, requires a need for discussion and discernment between the current branches of the movement.
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