★ United States Military Standard
A United States defense standard, often called a military standard, MIL-STD ", MIL-SPEC ", or MilSpecs ", is used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defense.
Standardization is beneficial in achieving interoperability, ensuring products meet certain requirements of standardization, reliability, total cost of ownership, compatibility with logistics systems and similar defense purposes.
Protection standards are also used by other non-military government organizations, technical organizations and industry. This article discusses the definition, history and application of standards of protection. Related documents, such as defense handbooks and specifications of defense, are also discussed.
1. Definition of document types. (Определение типов документов)
Although the official definition of the differences between several types of documents, all these documents are on the General topic "military standard", including defense specifications, handbooks and standards. Strictly speaking, these documents serve different purposes. According to the statements of government of Gao, military specifications "describe the physical and / or operational characteristics of a product", while military standards "detail the processes and materials that will be used to make the product." Military handbooks, on the other hand, are primarily sources of compiled information and / or recommendations. However, Gao recognizes that these terms are often used interchangeably.
Official definitions are provided by DoD 4120.24, defense program of standardization procedures chipboard, November 2014, the acquisition of U.S. dollars, technology and logistics:
For purposes of this article, "military standards" will include standards, specifications and handbooks.
2. Formats. (Форматы)
The DoD has standards about the format of standards:
- MIL-STD-961E1, Defense and Program-Unique Specifications Format and Content, 2 April 2008, Dept. of Defense.
3. Origins and evolution. (Происхождение и эволюция)
Defense standards evolved from the need to ensure proper performance, maintainability and ease of maintenance and logistical usefulness of military equipment. The last two goals of MRO and logistics favor certain General concepts, such as interchangeability, standardization of equipment and processes, in General, cataloguing, communications, and training. In the late 18th century and throughout the 19th century and the American and French military were early and long-standing development sponsors and advocates of interchangeability and standardization. Second world war 1939-1945, almost all national armed forces and TRANS-national alliances of the same allied forces the axis powers were busy standardizing and cataloging. USA - cataloging Army-Navy system and the British defence standards Def-Stan to provide examples.
For example, due to differences in tolerances during world war II American screws, bolts and nuts do not fit British equipment and were not fully interchangeable. Protection standards provide many benefits, such as minimizing the number of types of ammunition, ensuring compatibility of tools, and ensuring quality during production of military equipment. This means, for example, in ammunition and food cases that can be opened without tools, vehicle subsystems, which can be quickly swapped into the place of the damaged one, and small arms and artillery that are less likely to find yourself with an excess of ammunition that do not fit and lack of ammunition, what makes.
However, the proliferation of standards also has some drawbacks. The main thing is that they impose what is functionally equivalent to the regulatory burden on the supply chain of defence, both in military and civilian providers. In the United States in the 1980s and early 1990-ies, it was alleged that a large number of standards, nearly 30.000 by 1990, imposed unnecessary restrictions, increased cost of work and hence the DOD, since the costs eventually to transfer to the customer and preclude the inclusion of the latest technologies. Responding to growing criticism, the U.S. Secretary of defense William Perry issued a Memorandum in 1994 that prohibited the use of most of the military specifications and standards without giving. This became known as" Perry memo”. Many military specifications and standards were canceled. In turn, the DOD focused on using specifications and nongovernment standards." Specifications” describe the required characteristics of the weapon, and not a description of how these goals will be achieved that, directing what technology and what materials will be used. In 2005, the Ministry of defense issued a new Memorandum, which excluded the requirement for the failure to use military specifications or standards. In 2005, the memo does not restore any canceled military specifications or standards.
According to a 2003 issue of gateway, published by the Center for analysis of information systems, the number of protection standards and specifications was reduced from 45.500 to 28.300. However, other sources note that a number of standards just before the Perry, a Memorandum was issued was less than 30.000, and that thousands of people have been cancelled since then. This may be due to differences in what is considered to be" a military standard.”
Another potential disadvantage is the careful standardization is a threat analogous to monoculture, where lack of biodiversity creates higher risk of pandemic flu or a ship without a separation barrier, where even a small hull leak threatens the whole vessel. If the enemy detects the lack of a standardized system, the uniformity of the system makes it vulnerable to incapacity through what could have been a limited compromise. Also, if standardization is facilitated by the use of the allies, it can also facilitate the task of the enemy, using equipment that is lost, as prize of war. However, this threat is somewhat academic, as even poorly standardized technique presents the possibility of providing the enemy if overrun.
4. Non-exhaustive list of documents. (Неисчерпывающий перечень документов)
Full list of standards, such as the Ministry of defence index of specifications and standards until 1993.
- Cataloging Handbook H4, a handbook containing vendor CAGE code details.
- Cataloging Handbook H8, another handbook containing vendor CAGE code details.
- Cataloging Handbook H2, definitions for NATO Stock Number Federal Supply Groups and Federal Supply Classes.
- Cataloging Handbook H6, Item Name Directory for the NATO Codification System.
- MIL-STD-202, "Electronic and Electrical Component Parts" test methods.
- MIL-STD-6013, Army Tactical Data Link-1 ATDL-1.
- MIL-STD-1750A, an instruction set architecture ISA for airborne computers.
- MIL-STD-6011, Tactical Data Link TDL 11 / 11B Message Standard Link-11.
- MIL-STD-1760, smart-weapons interface derived from MIL-STD-1553.
- MIL-STD-276A, Standard for vacuum impregnation of porous metal castings and powdered metal components.
- MIL-STD 461, "Requirements for the control of electromagnetic interference characteristics of subsystems and equipment".
- MIL-STD-2045-47001, Connectionless Data Transfer Application Layer.
- MIL-STD-1388-1A, Logistics support analysis LSA canceled and s / s by MIL-HDBK-502, Acquisition Logistics.
- MIL-STD-105, Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Attributes withdrawn.
- MIL-STD-1913, Picatinny rail, a mounting bracket on firearms.
- MIL-STD-2196, pertains to optical fiber communications.
- MIL-STD-1168, a classification system for ammunition production that replaced the Ammunition Identification Code AIC system used during World War II.
- MIL-STD-6016, Tactical Data Link TDL 16 Message Standard Link-16.
- MIL-STD-3011, Joint Range Extension Application Protocol JREAP.
- MIL-STD-1246C, particle and molecular contamination levels for space hardware has been replaced with IEST-STD-CC1246D.
- MIL-STD-2525, Joint Military Symbology The URL is incorrectly linked to APP6, the NATO standard and needs to be replaced).
- MIL-STD-1388-2B, DOD requirements for a logistic support analysis record canceled and s / s by MIL-PRF-49506, Logistics Management Information.
- MIL-STD-6040, United States Message Text Format USMTF.
- MIL-STD-1815, Ada programming language.
- MIL-STD-810, test methods for determining the environmental effects on equipment.
- MIL-STD-883, test method standard for microcircuits.
- MIL-STD-196, a specification of the Joint Electronics Type Designation System JETDS.
- MIL-STD-1472, Human Engineering. (Mil-с std-1472, человеческой инженерии)
- MIL-STD-188, a series related to telecommunications.
- MIL-STD-1553, a digital communications bus.
- MIL-STD-882, standard practice for system safety.
- MIL-STD-1234, sampling, inspection, and testing of pyrotechnics.
- MIL-STD-1397, Input / Output Interfaces, Standard Digital Data, Navy Systems.
- MIL-STD-806, "Graphical Symbols for Logic Diagrams", originally a USAF standard.
- MIL-STD-1474, a sound measurement for small arms standard.
- MIL-STD-1394, this is concerned with the construction quality of hats and is often confused with IEEE 1394.
- MIL-STD-2361, pertains to digital development, acquisition, and delivery of Army administrative, training and doctrine, and technical equipment publications in SGML.
- MIL-STD-6017, Variable Message Format VMF.
- MIL-STD-1589, JOVIAL programming language.
- MIL-STD-498, on software development and documentation.
- MIL-STD-167, Mechanical Vibration of Shipboard Equipment.
- MIL-STD-1376, guidelines for sonar transducers, specifically piezoelectric ceramics.
- MIL-STD-499, on Engineering Management System Engineering.
- MIL-DTL-13486, Electrical Wires and Cables.
- MIL-HDBK-310, GLOBAL CLIMATIC DATA FOR DEVELOPING MILITARY PRODUCTS.
- MIL-HDBK-881, Work Breakdown Structures for Defense Materiel Items WBS.
- MIL-I-17563C, Demonstrates a vacuum impregnation sealant is compatible with the application and that the sealant will not degrade or fail over the life of the part.
- MIL-PRF-38534, General Specification For Hybrid Microcircuits.
- MIL-PRF-38535, General Specification For Integrated Circuits Microcircuits Manufacturing.
- MIL-PRF-46374, Watch, Wrist: General Purpose.
- MIL-S-82258, on rubber swim fins. "Requirements for swim fins made of gum rubber for wear by military personnel for swimming purposes and for general utility".
- MIL-E-7016F, pertains to the analysis of AC and DC loads on an aircraft.
- MIL-S-901, Shock Testing for Shipboard Equipment.
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