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★ Cosmology

Cosmology is the branch of astronomy connected with the research about the origin and evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day and in the future. It is a scientific study of the origin, evolution and fate of the Universe. Physical cosmology is the science that studies the origin of the Universe, its large-scale structure and dynamics, and its further destiny, as well as the laws of science that govern these areas.

In cosmology the term was first used in English in 1656 in Thomas Blounts Glossographia, and in 1731, taken in Latin by the German philosopher Christian Wolff, in Cosmologia generalis, O.

Religious or mythological cosmology is a belief based on mythological, religious and esoteric literature and traditions of creation myths and eschatology.

Physical cosmology is studied by scientists, such as astronomers and physicists, and philosophers, such as metaphysical, philosophers, physicists, and philosophers of space and time. Because this is an area of General philosophy, the theory in physical cosmology can include both scientific and non-scientific proposals, and may depend on assumptions that cannot be verified. Cosmology differs from astronomy in that regards the Universe as a whole, while the latter deals with individual celestial objects. Modern physical cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang Theory, which attempts to bring together observational astronomy and particle physics, more precisely, the standard parametrization of the Big Bang with dark matter and dark energy, known as the Lambda-CDM model.

Theoretical astrophysicist David N. the website spergel described cosmology as a "historical science" because "when we look into space we look back in time" because of the finite speed of light.


1. Disciplines. (Дисциплин)

Physics and astrophysics have played a leading role in the formation of ideas about the Universe through scientific observation and experiment. Physical cosmology has been shaped by mathematics and observation the analysis of the entire Universe. The universe is usually understood, began with the Big Bang, and then almost instantly cosmic inflation, the expansion of space from the Universe, believed to have originated 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago. Cosmogony the study of the origin of the Universe, and cosmography maps the features of the Universe.

In Diderots Encyclopedie, cosmology is divided into uranology science heaven, aerology science on the air, Geology the science of continents and hydrology the science of waters.

Metaphysical cosmology has also been described as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is confirmed by Markus Aureliuss the observation that the place of man in this regard: "he who does not know that the world does not know where he is, and who knows why the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is."


2.1. Discoveries. Physical cosmology. (Физическая космология)

Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of physical origin and evolution of the Universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the Universe on large scales. In its earliest form it was what is now known as "celestial mechanics", the study of the heavens. The Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. The geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory until the 16th century when Nicolaus Copernicus, then Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system. This is one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology.

Isaac Newton the basics of Mathematica, published in 1687, was the first description of law of universal gravitation. It provides the physical mechanism, Keplers laws, as well as anomalies in previous systems, caused by the gravitational interaction between the planets that need to be solved. The fundamental difference between Newtons cosmology and preceding it was the Copernican principle - that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies. This was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology.

Modern scientific cosmology considered begun in 1917 with albert Einsteins publication of his final modification of General relativity in the article "cosmological considerations on the General theory of relativity", although this document was not widely available outside of Germany until the end of the First world war the General theory of relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild and Arthur Eddington to explore the astronomical consequences of it, which enhanced the ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Physics began to change the assumption that the universe was static and unchanging. In 1922 Alexander Friedman proposed the idea of an expanding Universe that contained moving matter. Around the same time 1917 to 1922 great debate took place, since the early cosmologists, such as Heber Curtis and Ernst Opik determining that some nebulae seen in telescopes were separate galaxies remote from our own.

Parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos is coming to a climax. Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of the cosmos consisting of milk only star system, while Heber D. Curtis argued for the idea that spiral nebulae star systems in their own right as island universes. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the great debate on 26 APR 1920 at a meeting of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States in Washington, D.C. a dispute was resolved when Edwin Hubble found Cepheid variables in the Andromeda Galaxy in 1923 and 1924. Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the milky Way.

Subsequent modeling of the Universe explored the possibility that the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein in his 1917 article, can lead to an expanding Universe, depending on its value. Thus, the Big Bang model was proposed by Belgian priest Georges Lemaitre in 1927 which was subsequently confirmed by Edwin Hubbles discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation, Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964. These results are a first step to rule out some of the many alternative cosmology.

Since 1990, significant progress in observational cosmology have transformed the cosmology is largely speculative science into an exact science with precise agreement between theory and observation. These achievements include the observations of the microwave background radiation from the BER, satellites WMAP and Planck, large new galaxy redshift surveys, including SDSS and 2dfGRS and observations of distant supernovae and gravitational lensing. These observations match the predictions of the theory of cosmic inflation, a modified Big Bang Theory, and the specific version known as the Lambda-CDM model. This has led many to turn in the modern era as the "Golden age of cosmology".

17 March 2014, astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian center for astrophysics announced the discovery of gravitational waves, providing strong evidence of inflation and the Big Bang. However, on 19 June 2014, lowered confidence in confirming the cosmic inflation findings in the message.

On December 1, 2014 at the meeting of the Planck 2014 in Ferrara, Italy, astronomers reported that the Universe is 13.8 billion years old and consists of 4.9 percent atomic matter, 26.6% of dark matter and 68.5 percent dark energy.


2.2. Discoveries. Religious or mythological cosmology. (Религиозная или мифологическая космология)

Religious or mythological cosmology is a belief based on mythological, religious and esoteric literature and traditions of creation and eschatology.


2.3. Discoveries. Philosophical cosmology. (Философская космология)

Cosmology sees the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, she has quite a broad scope, and in many cases was based on religion. Modern metaphysical cosmology addresses questions about the Universe that are beyond science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods as a dialectic. Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address such issues as:

  • What are the ultimate material components of the Universe.
  • Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Not cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths? to see epistemology.
  • What is the origin of the Universe? What is its root cause? Its existence is necessary.
  • What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? see teleology.


3. Historical cosmology. (Исторические космологии)

Notes to table: the term "static" simply means not expanding and not shrinking. Symbol G represents Newtons gravitational constant, Λ the cosmological constant lambda.

  • Philosophical cosmology philosophy of cosmology or philosophy of cosmos is a discipline directed to the philosophical contemplation of the universe as
  • Physical cosmology is a branch of cosmology concerned with the studies of the largest - scale structures and dynamics of the universe and with fundamental
  • Religious cosmology is an explanation of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe, from a religious perspective. This may include beliefs
  • A non - standard cosmology is any physical cosmological model of the universe that was, or still is, proposed as an alternative to the then - current standard
  • Plasma cosmology is a non - standard cosmology whose central postulate is that the dynamics of ionized gases and plasmas play important, if not dominant
  • In physical cosmology cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe
  • Brane cosmology refers to several theories in particle physics and cosmology related to string theory, superstring theory and M - theory. The central idea
  • Islamic cosmology is the cosmology of Islamic societies. It is mainly derived from the Qur an, Hadith, Sunnah, and current Islamic as well as other pre - Islamic
  • Quantum cosmology is the attempt in theoretical physics to develop a quantum theory of the Universe. This approach attempts to answer open questions of
  • Cosmology Home is a BOINC distributed computing project that was once run at the Departments of Astronomy and Physics at the University of Illinois at
  • An inhomogeneous cosmology is a physical cosmological theory an astronomical model of the physical universe s origin and evolution which, unlike the

  • Distance measures are used in physical cosmology to give a natural notion of the distance between two objects or events in the universe. They are often
  • In Baha i cosmology reality is divided into three divisions. The first division is God, who is preexistent and on whom the rest of creation is contingent
  • Observational cosmology is the study of the structure, the evolution and the origin of the universe through observation, using instruments such as telescopes
  • In Hindu cosmology the universe is cyclically created and destroyed. Its cosmology divides time into four epochs or Yuga, of which the current period
  • The Journal of Cosmology describes itself as a peer - reviewed open access scientific journal of cosmology although the quality of the process has been
  • The Gruber Prize in Cosmology established in 2000, is one of three international awards worth US 500, 000 made by the Gruber Foundation, a non - profit
  • Sufi cosmology Arabic: الكوزمولوجية الصوفية is a Sufi approach to cosmology which discusses the creation of man and the universe, which according to
  • Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the Universe according to the Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. It consists of
  • A black hole cosmology also called Schwarzschild cosmology or black hole cosmological model is a cosmological model in which the observable universe
  • physical cosmology studies the universe as a single physical entity. The interface between these two fields is sometimes referred to as particle cosmology Particle
  • Cosmology of Kyoto is an adventure game developed by Softedge and published by Yano Electric. It was released for Japan in 1993, and then in North America
  • In cosmology the cosmological constant usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ is the energy density of space, or vacuum energy, that
  • The Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics is an online - only peer - reviewed scientific journal focusing on all aspects of cosmology and astroparticle
  • In modern physical cosmology the cosmological principle is the notion that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic
  • In physical cosmology fractal cosmology is a set of minority cosmological theories which state that the distribution of matter in the Universe, or the
  • Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe loka and its constituents such as living beings, matter, space, time
  • Modern cosmological ideas follow the development of the scientific discipline of physical cosmology ca. 16th century BCE - Mesopotamian cosmology has a
  • The Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge KICC is a research establishment set up through collaboration of the University of Cambridge and the Kavli
  • Biblical cosmology is the biblical writers conception of the cosmos as an organised, structured entity, including its origin, order, meaning and destiny

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