★ Dualistic cosmology
Dualism in cosmology is a moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts that often contradict each other. It is an umbrella term that encompasses a diversity of views of various religions, including traditional religions and the Scriptures of religions.
Moral dualism is the belief of the great complement or conflict between benevolent and malevolent. It just means that there are two moral opposites at work, independent from any interpretation that may be "moral" and independent as they can be presented. The moral opposites might, for example, exist in the world, which has one God, more than one God, or not. On the contrary, duotheism, bitheism or ditheism implies at least two gods. While bitheism implies harmony, ditheism implies rivalry and opposition, such as between good and evil, or between light and darkness, summer and winter. For example, a ditheistic system may be one in which one God-the Creator and destroyer. In theology, dualism can also refer to the relationship between deity and creature or deity and the Universe, see theistic dualism. This form of dualism is the view shared by certain traditions of Christianity and Hinduism. Furthermore, in ontological dualism, the world is divided into two main categories. The opposition and combination of the universes two basic principles of Yin and Yang is a large part of Chinese philosophy, and is an important feature of Taoism. This is also discussed in Confucianism.
Many of the myths and motifs of creation from dualistic cosmology was described in ethnographic and anthropological literature. These motives to understand the world as created, organized, or influenced by two demiurges, culture heroes, or other mythological beings, who either compete or have an additional function in the establishment, organization and impacting the world. There is a huge diversity of such cosmologies. In some cases, for example among the Chukchi, creatures cooperate, not compete, and give equally. In many other cases, these two entities are not of the same value or the power sometimes, one of them even described as gullible. Sometimes they can be contrasted as good and evil. They can be often seen as twins or at least brothers. Dualistic motives in mythology can be seen on every inhabited continent. Zolotarev concludes that they cannot be explained by diffusion or borrowing, but rather convergent origin: they are associated with a dual organization Society fragments, in some cultures, this social organization may have ceased to exist, but the mythology of stores more and more disguised ways.
1. Moral dualism. (Моральный дуализм)
Moral dualism is the belief of the great complement or conflict between benevolent and malevolent. Like ditheism / bitheism see below moral dualism does not imply the absence of a monistic or monotheistic principles. Moral dualism simply means that there are two moral opposites at work, independent from any interpretation that may be "moral" and - unlike ditheism / bitheism - depends on how they can be presented.
For example, Mazdaism Mazdean Zoroastrianism as dualistic and monotheistic but not monist by definition, since in that philosophy God - the Creator - is purely good, and the antithesis - which is also created–is absolute. Zurvanism Zurvanite Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Mandaeism, the representative of dualistic and monist philosophy, as each has a Supreme and transcendental first principle from which two equal but opposite entities then emanate. This is also true for less well-known Christian Gnostic religions, such as Bogomils, Cathars, and so on. More complex forms of monism dualism also exist, for instance in Hermeticism, where the mind is "thought" - that is described created man - brings both good and evil, dependent on interpretation, whether it receives prompting from God or from the demon. Duality with pluralism is a logical error.
1.1. Moral dualism. History. (История)
Moral dualism began as a theological belief. Dualism was first seen implicitly in Egyptian religious beliefs in contrast to the gods of chaos, death and Osiris life. The first explicit conception of dualism came from the ancient Persian religion of Zoroastrianism around the mid-fifth century BC. Zoroastrianism-a monotheistic religion which believes that Ahura Mazda is the eternal Creator of all wealth. Any violations of the order of Ahura Mazda to arise from druj, which are all uncreated. This is a significant choice for the individual to make. Either they fully participate in human life for Ahura Mazda or they will not give up power drug. Personal dualism is even more distinct in the beliefs of later religions.
Religious dualism of Christianity between good and evil is not a perfect dualism as God of Goodness will inevitably destroy Satans evil. The early Christian dualism is largely based on Platonic dualism, see: Neoplatonism and Christianity. There is also a personal dualism in Christianity with soul-body distinction on the basis of the idea of an immaterial soul.
2. Duotheism, bitheism, ditheism
When used in relation to several of the gods, dualism can refer to duotheism, bitheism or ditheism. Although ditheism / bitheism imply moral dualism, they are not equivalent: ditheism / bitheism implies at least two gods, while moral dualism does not necessarily imply theism, theos = God at all.
Like ditheism bitheism and imply a belief in two equally powerful gods with additional properties or antonymy, however, while bitheism implies harmony, ditheism implies rivalry and opposition, such as between good and evil, light and dark, summer and winter. For example, a ditheistic system would be one in which one God-Creator, the other-destructive MB. theodicy. In the original conception of Zoroastrianism, for example, Ahura Mazda was the spirit of good, while Ahriman Angra-Mainyu, the spirit of absolute evil.
In the system bitheistic, on the contrary, where the two deities are not in conflict or opposition, it may be a male and the other female MV. duotheism. One famous example bitheistic or duotheistic theology based on gender polarity is in the neopagan religion of Wicca. In Wicca, the dualism represented in a belief in God and goddess as a two-way partnership in ruling the Universe. It is centered on the worship of the divine couple, the goddess of the moon and the God with horns, which are considered to be Amateurs. However, there is also a ditheistic theme in traditional Wicca, as the horned God has two aspects, bright and dark are related to the Day / night, summer / winter - as the oak King and the Holly king, who in the Wiccan myth, and ritual, as they say, to fight twice a year on the power of the Goddess, resulting in the change of seasons.
2.1. Duotheism, bitheism, ditheism Radical and mitigated dualism. (Радикальные и смягчить дуализм)
- To soften the dualism is when one of the two principles is in some way inferior to another. Such classical Gnostic movements as the Sethians conceived of the material world is created of a lesser divinity than the true God who was the object of their devotion. The spiritual world was conceived as being, fundamentally different from the material world, co-extensive with the true God and the true home of certain enlightened members of humanity, thus, these systems Express a sense of acute alienation in the world, and their resultant aim was to allow his soul to escape the constraints presented in the physical world.
- Radical dualism – or absolute dualism, which assumes two equal divine forces. Manichaeism involves one of the two earlier worlds light and darkness which become embroiled in conflict, the result is the chaotic actions of the latter. Subsequently, some elements of the light became trapped in the dark, the purpose of the material creation-not to accept the slow process of retrieving these items, the end of which the Kingdom of light will prevail over darkness. Manicheanism likely inherits this dualistic mythology from Zoroastrianism, in which the eternal spirit Ahura Mazda is opposed by his antithesis, Angro-Mainyu, the two engaged in a cosmic struggle, the conclusion of which will likewise see Ahura Mazda triumphant. The hymn of the Pearl involves the belief that the material world corresponds to some sort of malevolent intoxication, caused by the forces of darkness to keep elements of the light trapped inside it in a state of drunken madness.
However, bitheistic and ditheistic principles are not always so easily contrastable, for instance in a system where one God is the representative of summer and drought and the other of winter and rain / fertility Ms. mythology Persephone. Marcionism, an early Christian sect, believed that the old and New Testaments were the work of two opposing gods: both were first principles, but of different religions.
3. Theistic dualism. (Теистический дуализм)
In theology, dualism can refer to the relationship between God and creation or God and the Universe. This form of dualism is the view shared by certain traditions of Christianity and Hinduism.
3.1. Theistic dualism. In Christianity. (В Христианстве)
The dualism between God and creation exists as a Central belief in multiple historical sects and traditions of Christianity, including Marcionism, Catharism, Paulicianism, and Gnostic Christianity. Christian dualism means the belief that God and creation are different, but interrelated through an indivisible bond. Sects like the Cathars and Puliciano, this dualism between the material world, created by the evil God and moral God. Historians divide Christian dualism into absolute dualism, which held that good and evil gods were equally powerful, and mitigated dualism, which held that material evil was subordinate to the spiritual good. Faith, Christian theologians who adhere to a libertarian or compatibilist view of free will, that free will separates humankind from God is also characterized as a form of dualism. The theologian Leroy Stephens Rouner compares the dualism of Christianity, the dualism which exists in Zoroastrianism and the tradition of Sankhya Hinduism. The theological use of the word dualism dates back to 1700, in a book that describes the dualism between good and evil.
Tolerance dualism varies widely between different Christian traditions. As a monotheistic religion, the conflict between dualism and monism has existed in Christianity since its origin. In the 1912 Catholic encyclopedia describes that, in the Catholic Church, "the dualistic hypothesis of an eternal world existing side by side with God was of course rejected" from the thirteenth century, but the bodily–mental dualism was not. The problem of evil is difficult to reconcile with absolute monism, and has prompted some Christian sects to veer towards dualism. Gnostic forms of Christianity were more ambivalent, and in some Gnostic traditions claimed that the devil was separated from God as an independent deity. The Christian dualists of the Byzantine Empire, Pavlikeni, were seen as Manichean heretics in Byzantine theology. This tradition of Christian dualism, founded by Constantine-Silvanus argued that the universe was created through evil and separate from the moral God.
Of the Cathars, a Christian sect in southern France, believed that there was a dualism between two gods, One good and the other representing evil. The Roman Catholic Church condemned the Cathars as heretics, and sought to suppress the movement in the 13th century. The Albigensian crusade was initiated by Pope innocent III in 1208 to remove the Cathars of Languedoc in France, where they were known as Albigesians. The Inquisition, which began in the year 1233, Pope Gregory IX, and the target of the Cathars.
3.2. Theistic dualism. Gnosticism. (Гностицизм)
Gnosticism is a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally United in the belief in the distinction between the higher, transcendental God, and blind the evil demiurge responsible for the creation of the material Universe, thereby locking the divine spark in matter.
Bogomils, Cathars, and Puliciano, generally regarded as imitative of Gnosticism. If the Cathars had a direct historical influence from ancient Gnosticism is disputed. However, the basic concepts of Gnostic cosmology, can be found in Cathar beliefs most clearly in their notion of a lesser Creator God. Unlike the Gnostics of the second century, they did not apparently place any special relevance upon knowledge gnosis as an effective salvific force.
3.3. Theistic dualism. In Hinduism. (В Индуизме)
School of Vedanta, dvaita Indian philosophy advocates dualism between God and the Universe by theorizing the existence of two separate realities. The first and more important reality is Shiva or Shakti of Vishnu and Brahman. Shiva or Shakti, and Vishnu is the Supreme Soul, God, the absolute truth of the Universe, the independent reality. The second reality is that of dependent but equally real world that exists with its own separate entity. Everything is composed of the second reality, such as the individual Jiva, soul, matter, etc. has its own separate reality. The distinguishing factor of this philosophy, unlike the Advaita Vedanta monism of the Vedas lies in the fact that God takes on a personal role and is seen as a real eternal entity that governs and controls the Universe. Because the existence of people based on the divine, they are depicted as reflections, images or even shadows of the divine, but never and in no way identical with the divine. That is why salvation is described as the realization that all finite reality depends essentially on God.
4. Ontological dualism. (Онтологический дуализм)
In addition, dualism can mean the tendency of humans to perceive and understand the world to be divided into two General categories. In this sense, it is dualistic when one perceives a tree as a thing separate from everything surrounding it. This form of ontological dualism exists in Taoism and Confucianism, beliefs that divide the Universe into complementary opposites of Yin and Yang. In the tradition of classical Hinduism, Zen Buddhism or Islamic Sufism, a key to enlightenment is "overcoming" this sort of dualistic thinking, not just replacing dualism with monism and pluralism.
4.1. Ontological dualism. In Chinese philosophy. (В китайской философии)
The opposition and combination of the universes two basic principles of Yin and Yang is a large part of Chinese philosophy, and is an important feature of Taoism as philosophy and religion, although the concept was developed much earlier. Some argue that Yin and Yang were originally heaven and earth God, respectively. As one of the principles of ancient Chinese philosophy, Yin and Yang is also discussed in Confucianism, but to a lesser extent.
Some of the common associations with Yang and Yin, respectively, are: male and female, light and dark, active and passive, motion and stillness. Some scientists believe that the two ideas can be initially stopped at the two opposite slopes of the mountain, toward and away from the sun. Yin and Yang symbol actually has very little to do with Western dualism, instead it represents the philosophy of balance, where two opposites co-exist in harmony and able to convert into each other. In the Yin-Yang symbol has a dot of Yin in Yang and a dot of Yang in Yin. In Taoism, it symbolizes the interpenetration of opposite forces as different aspects of Tao, the first principle. The contrast needed to create a distinguishable reality, without which we would be nothing. Therefore, the independent principles of Yin and Yang are actually dependent on one another for each others distinguishable existence.
Additional dualistic concept seen Yin and Yang represent the interactions in nature, associated with feedback, where the opposing forces do not exchange in opposition but instead exchange reciprocally to promote stabilization similar to homeostasis. The principle underlying Taoism States that each independent organization is a part of its opposite. For sickness lies health and Vice versa. This is because all opposites are manifestations of the single Tao, and are therefore not independent from each other, but rather a variation of the same unifying force of all nature.
5. In traditional religions. (В традиционных религиях)
In the Chukchi myth and its variations report the creation of the world, in some embodiments, this is achieved by the joint work of several people.
5.1. In traditional religions. Samoyed peoples. (Самодийских народов)
In the myth of the Nenets, Num and nga to cooperate and compete with each other, creating the earth, there are other myths about competing, collaborating with the creators.
5.2. In traditional religions. Comparative studies of the Ket and neighbouring peoples. (Сравнительные исследования Кэт и соседних народов)
Among other things, also dualistic myths were investigated in studies which tried to compare the mythology of Siberian peoples and solve the problem of their origin. Vyacheslav Ivanov and Vladimir Toporov compared the mythology of the Kets people with these carriers Uralic languages, assuming in the studies, i.e., modelling semiotic systems in comparison mythologies, and they are also typological comparisons. In particular, it is possible Ural mythological analogy, be mentioned those of the Ob-Ugric and Samoyedic peoples peoples. Some other discussed analogy could be related to a dualistic organization of society-some dualistic features can be found in these comparable Nations. It should be recognized that, for kets, neither dualistic organization of society, nor cosmological dualism has been thoroughly investigated: if such opportunities exist, they are either weakened or remained unknown, although there are reports of the division into two components ekzogennye patrilinear folklore on conflicts of mythological figures, and also on cooperation of two beings in the creation of the Earth: diving on waterfowl. If we include the dualistic cosmology is understood in a broad sense, not limited to specific motifs, we find that they are much more common, they exist not only among some Siberian peoples, but there are examples in every inhabited continent.
5.3. In traditional religions. Chukchi. (Чукча)
In the Chukchi myth and its variations report the creation of the world, in some embodiments, this is achieved by the joint work of several people.
5.4. In traditional religions. But cognizability. (Но познаваемость)
All three Fuegian tribes had a dualistic myths about culture Heros. The Yamana have dualistic myths about the two brothers. They act as cultural heroes, and sometimes stand in an antagonistic relationship with each other, introducing opposite laws. Their numbers can be compared with Kwanyip brothers Selknam. In General, the presence of dualistic myths in two compared cultures does not imply relatedness or diffusion is necessary.
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- collaborating and also competing with each other - the myth is an example of dualistic cosmology Num god Pole worship Vertes 1990: 104 105 Vertes, Edit 1990
- collaborating and also competing with each other - the myth is an example of dualistic cosmology The word Num means heaven in Nenets. Nga god Pole worship Vertes
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